ContracerHigh precision + high functionality + high operability = Contracer Mitutoyo reserves the right to change any or all aspects of any product specication, including prices, designs and service content, without notice.Contracer (Contour Measuring Instruments)Quick Guide to Precision Measuring InstrumentsL-19Traceable AngleThe maximum angle at which a stylus can trace upwards or downwards along the contour of a workpiece, in the stylus travel direction, is referred to as the traceable angle. A one-sided sharp stylus with a tip angle of 12° (as in the above gure) can trace a maximum 77° of up slope and a maximum 87° of down slope. For a conical stylus (30° cone), the traceable angle is smaller. An up slope with an angle of 77° or less overall may actually include an angle of more than 77° due to the effect of surface roughness. Surface roughness also affects the measuring force.If a prole is read from the recorder through a template or scale, it is necessary to compensate for the stylus tip radius beforehand according to the applied measurement magnication.Compensating for Stylus Tip RadiusA recorded prole represents the locus of the center of the ball tip rolling on a workpiece surface. (A typical radius is 0.025 mm.) Obviously this is not the same as the true surface prole so, in order to obtain an accurate prole record, it is necessary to compensate for the effect of the tip radius through data processing.Compensating for Arm RotationWhen the stylus traces through a circular-arc, error arises in the X-axis direction of the recorded prole. Possible methods for compensating for this effect are as follows:AccuracyAs the detector units of the X-and Z-axes incorporate scales, the magnication accuracy is displayed not as a percentage but as the linear displacement accuracy for each axis.Overload Safety CutoutIf an excessive force (overload) is exerted on the stylus tip due, perhaps, to the tip encountering a too-steep slope on a workpiece feature, or a burr, for example, a safety device automatically stops operation and sounds an alarm buzzer. This type of instrument is commonly equipped with separate safety devices for the tracing direction (X axis) load and vertical direction (Z axis) load.Circular-Arc/Linear TracingThe locus traced by the stylus tip during vertical stylus movement can be a circular arc or a straight line. Ensuring a straight-line locus entails complex mechanics, while in the case of a circular-arc locus, if the amplitude of stylus displacement is large in the vertical direction, an error (δ) in the recorded prole in the horizontal direction arises.(See gure at lower left)Z-axis Measurement MethodsThough the X-axis measurement method commonly adopted is by means of a digital scale, the Z-axis measurement divides into analog methods (using a differential transformer, for example) and digital scale methods.Analog methods vary in Z-axis resolution depending on the measurement magnication and measuring range. Digital scale methods have xed resolution.Generally, a digital scale method provides higher accuracy than an analog method.rrrRecorded proleWorkpiece contourr: Stylus tip radiusStylus3)Software processing. To measure a workpiece contour that involves a large displacement in the vertical direction with high accuracy, one of these compensation methods needs to be implemented.1) Mechanical compensation2) Electrical compensationStylusMeasuring armFulcrumδ: Unwanted displacement in X to be compensatedδUp slopeDown slope77˚ or less87˚ or lessL

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